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When return on investment is greater than interest on loan funds. When interest on loan funds is less than return on investment . The tendency of sales to vary disproportionately with fixed cost. QPR Ltd. has high financial risk as compared to ABC Ltd.

A company should be particularly careful when forecasting the sales in these situations since a tiny percentage mistake can cause a bigger error in the cash flow and net income. Earnings along with revenues are more prone to vary in a firm with low entry barriers than in a company with high fixed costs. The unsatisfactory mounting debt commitments and pay operational expenditures due to income changes might quickly force a corporation into debt and liquidation. Because of unpaid bills looming, creditors may launch a petition in bankruptcy proceedings to have the firm assets sought to sale for recovering their obligations. A high level of financial leverage indicates the presence of high financial fixed costs as well as high financial risk. DCL is a quantitative expression for combined leverage.

Ratio Analysis

It has borrowed ₹ 60 lakhs @ 10% per annum and has an equity capital of ₹ 75 lakhs. As Small Pen Ltd. has higher operating leverage hence it has high business risk as compared to Big Pen Ltd. If there are preference shares in capital structure then following formula has to be used to calculate the financial leverage.

  • As with any other financial instrument, leverage has advantages and disadvantages that you should be aware of before employing it in your business or personal investments.
  • ParticularsRs in LakhEBIT1,120EBT320Fixed Cost700Calculate the percentage change in EPS if sales increase by 5%.
  • The unsatisfactory mounting debt commitments and pay operational expenditures due to income changes might quickly force a corporation into debt and liquidation.
  • If a firm has both the leverages at a high level, it is risky.
  • But, a downturn in the economy could result in a drop in earnings because of their significant fixed expenses.

Financial leverage calculates the sensitivity of the firm’s net income to changes in its net operating income . On the contrary to operating leverage, which is determined by the firm’s choice of technology , financial leverage is dogged by the firm’s financing selections . Financial leverage refers to the practice of borrowing money in order to increase your business’s net worth. Financial leverage increases the potential for profit and collateral for risky investments. It is primarily concerned with the financial activities which involve raising of funds from sources for which a firm has to bear fixed charges such as interest expenses, loan fees etc.

TUV Ltd. & WXY Ltd. both are more risky as compared to market as there operating leverages and betas are more than market. However, WXY Ltd. is more risky than market as well as TUV Ltd. If ROI exceeds the rate of interest on debt, financial leverage will be favourable and vice versa. Is the ratio of net operating income before fixed charges to net operating income after fixed charges. Low operating leverage and high financial leverage.

The DOL is defined as the percentage change in earnings before interest and taxes relative to a given percentage change in sales and output. There is a notion of a safe debt level of a company. Although it is difficult to establish the ‘safe debt level’, it is determined with reference to the operating leverage of the company. Operating leverage measures the proportion of fixed costs in the operating costs structure. The ratio of a company’s fixed expenses to variable costs over a certain period is known as operating leverage.

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A corporation is said to have significant operating leverage when its fixed expenses surpass its variable costs. Variations in sales volume are a concern for such a company, and the instability may impact EBIT and return on capital invested. ABC Ltd. has an average selling price of ₹ 10 per unit. Its variable unit costs are ₹ 7 and fixed costs amount to ₹ 1,70,000.

Financial leverage is 2.122, this means that 10% change in EBIT will cause 21.22% change in EBT. Company’s risk and risk of all other firms in the industry is same. Management wants to maximize EPS and in doing so it also satisfies the primary goal of financial management i e. Maximization of the owner’s wealth as represented by the value of business. The amount of gross assets is equal to net capital employed.

operating leverage is ratio of ebit to

Rs. 10 lakhs in equity shares of Rs. 100 each and the balance through long-term borrowings at 9% interest p.a. If the business does this, it will mean that the company’s entity responsible for its business activities will be able to earn many sales after paying for all of its fixed expenses. In this case, the firm makes a profit from every incremental sale. However, it must achieve sufficient sales to pay for the significant fixed expenses. However, companies that have low DOLs can lower their fixed expenses.


If EBIT rises by 1% at the firm, then EPS will rise by 3.5%. If EBIT rises by 3.5% at the firm, then EPS will rise by 1%. If sales rise by 3.5% at the firm, then EBIT Business logic will rise by 1%. Students should practice Leverages – CS Executive Financial and Strategic Management MCQ Questions with Answers based on the latest syllabus.

  • In determining whether your business has high or low DOL, examine your company’s performance compared to other companies in your industry.
  • As both companies have similar operating leverage hence both have the same business risk.
  • If sales increase by 6% taxable income will increase by 24% (6 × 4).
  • This allows you to use your fixed costs and invest in your business instead.

The fixed operating costs are ₹ 2,00,000 and variable operating cost ratio is 40%. A firm can finance its investments through debt and equity.In addition, companies may also use preference capital. The rate of interest on debt is fixed.Similarly the rate of dividend on preference shares is fixed, though preference dividend is paid from profit after tax.

Leverages – Financial and Strategic Management MCQ

If ROI is exactly equal to the rate of interest on debt, there is no financial leverage and EPS will not be affected. Is the ratio of percentage change in earning per share to the percentage change in sales. If the Return on Investment exceeds the rate of interest on debt, it is financial leverage.

operating leverage is ratio of ebit to

Thus, leverage reflects the responsiveness or influence of one variable over some other financial variables. In leverage analysis, the emphasis is on the measurement of the relationship of two variables rather than on measuring these variables. It is important to remember that leverage arises from the existence of fixed costs in a company. And low fixed expenses if companies with a lower DOL have more sales and variable costs. This means that operating profits won’t increase at the same rate for companies with a higher DOL and fewer variable costs.

Combined Leverage

A negative working capital means the company currently is unable to meet its long-term liabilities. Net working Capital is the excess of current assets over current liabilities. If financial leverage is 2.5, this means that -………. Highly risky situation as it consists of large interest costs.

Uses of Operating Leverage

Individuals may find that using leverage is the only way to afford certain large-ticket items, such as a home or a college education. Leverage is the ratio applied to the margin amount to determine how large trade will be placed. Understanding margin and leverage, as well as the distinction between the two, can be difficult at times. Debt can be used to build credit, start building equity through the purchase of a new home, or even leverage it to make a profit-generating investment.


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